Jun 20, 2024  
Academic Catalog 2019-2020 
Academic Catalog 2019-2020 [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

Vision Science, PhD


This program is offered to top students worldwide who are interested in scientific research or case study related to clinic practice. It is designed to engage students to explore the broad field of vision science through basic, translational, or clinical research. The curriculum provides fundamental knowledge about all facets of vision and visual performance, including (but not limited to) physiological optics, anatomy and physiology of human eye, visual perception/cognition, visual neuroscience, eye diseases, public health vision care, sports vision, eye movements/visual search, visual function in learning, and human-computer interaction, we well we other aspects of applied vision. Students will engage in both laboratory-based and clinical-relevant research and exposed to the basic concepts and techniques central to specialized research topics. The program was created to provide high quality optometric education combined with customized rigorous research training. Overarching program goals are to develop students into highly proficient clinicians and talented researchers who are well prepared for careers in vision science whether in academia, industry, or leadership in government- supported/non-profit organizations.

Degree completion usually takes 3 years but may vary depending on whether the student enters with a bachelor’s degree, a master’s degree, or any advanced standing (e.g., an OD degree or a post-ungraduated degree in vision science related field). The total time allowed to complete the PhD degree requirements is seven years. Students entering PhD without MS degree should complete the MS requirements within five years and the PhD degree requirements within seven years from the student’s matriculation for graduate study. Students who fail to reach the milestones may be removed from both degree programs.

Degree Requirements


To receive the Ph.D. degree in Vision Science, students need to satisfy the following formal requirements. In addition, students are encouraged to have frequent discussions with the faculty about additional activities — such as publishing papers and presenting research at conferences — which are important for achieving their own professional goals.

  • Fulfill course requirements with satisfactory performance. The minimum credits required is 34.5, but requirements vary based upon students’ backgrounds. Coursework additional to that listed below may be deemed necessary by the VSG Committee and a student’s advisor.
  • Conduct an early research, which can be satisfied with an approved master’s thesis or a peer-reviewed research publication.
  • Pass the qualification exam of general knowledge.
  • Submit an IRB application, when applicable, and successfully obtain approval by dissertation advisor and committee as well as IRB committee.
  • Present the preliminary dissertation proposal obtain approval from the dissertation advisor and committee prior to data collection.
  • Complete an original research or a comprehensive review paper and successfully defend in front of the dissertation advisor and committee to fulfill the dissertation requirement.
  • Successfully present the completed dissertation orally as well as in its written form to the dissertation advisor and committee for the final defense.
  • Share the learned knowledge with the professional community in either a peer-reviewed journal or a scientific conference.
  • Actively participate in the professional community as demonstrated by attendance, presentation, and/or membership in scientific organizations.

Required Coursework

PhD Advanced Research Skills: 2.5 Credits

PhD Colloquium: 2 Credits

PhD Research Work: 18 credits

PhD Teaching Experiences: 2 credits

Electives: 5 credits

Electives may be chosen from those offered by the College of Optometry except for courses listed under Vision Science Core Courses. MS Colloquium, MS Thesis Research, and VSC 760 - Curricular Practical Training .

Course requirements vary based on students’ backgrounds when matriculated into the program.

  • All students must complete the above courses (41.5 credits)
  • Students with a vision-sciencce relevant master’s degree from an accredited institution (but not from Pacific University) must complete a minimum of 56.5 credits, which include all of the requirements listed above, plus the Vision Science Seminar series (an additional 6 credits), Basic Research Skills (8 credits), and Clinical Skills (1 credit) listed in the Master’s program curriculum.
  • Students without a relevant Master’s degree need to take all PhD courses mentioned above, plus complete the Master’s degree curriculum


Additional Requirements

Early Research (Master’s Thesis or Peer-Reviewed Research Article)

Students must conduct and present a research study before applying for the qualifying exam. This requirement can be met by successfully defending a Master’s thesis, by having a manuscript accepted in a peer-reviewed journal with the student being the first author or the corresponding author, or by having completed a Master’s thesis in a related field prior to entering into the program. The previous Master’s thesis or peer-reviewed paper must be reviewed and approved by the VSG Committee.

Examination of Knowledge in Vision Science

PhD students must pass a qualifying examination (in written and oral forms) to ascertain the breadth of their comprehension of fundamental knowledge in the field of vision science. After successfully completing all Advanced Seminars in VSC 811, 821, 831 (or 833 & 834), and 841, the student may request to take the knowledge Examination. At the time of the Knowledge Examination, the student also must have met the requirement of Early Research.

The VSG Committee appoints the student’s Qualifying Committee, which shall be comprised of all instructors in the Advanced Seminar courses. The Knowledge Exam Committee is tasked with designing the Qualifying Examination for the student, and shall be configured to assure eventual student expertise in the following areas of vision science:

  • Vision and Optics
  • Ocular Anatomy and Physiology
  • Eye Diseases and Public Health

Oculomotor Functions and Visual Performance

The Comprehensive Knowledge Examination includes two components, a written exam and an oral exam. The written exam is conducted first, and the oral examination shall be administered within two weeks after passing the written examination. During the oral examination, the Comprehensive Knowledge Committee will test the student knowledge within the selected topical areas. The oral examination can be combined with the Preliminary Examination of The Dissertation Proposal.

Preliminary (Qualification) Examination of the Dissertation Proposal

In consultation with the student, a research advisor is appointed to replace the academic advisor. The research advisor works with the student and the Director of the Graduate Program to form a Doctoral Dissertation Committee to guide the student’s dissertation work. The dissertation committee requires at least four members with expertise related to the student’s dissertation topic, including:

  • The research advisor, who shall serve as the committee chair;
  • At least two committee members who are faculty of the College of Optometry;
  • One Pacific University faculty member who is not a part of the College of Optometry, who shall be included for the final defense for the purpose of evaluating the dissertation defense. If a non-optometry Pacific University faculty member is not available to serve on the dissertation committee, a College of Optometry faculty will be substituted.
  • Other experts may be included as appropriate, although inclusion of more than four committee members generally is not recommended.

If changes in the approved advisor or committee become necessary, a written request must be approved by the VSG Committee.

Concurrent with the Qualification Examination, or within one year after its completion, a student submits a dissertation research proposal for the Oral Preliminary Proposal Examination to the dissertation committee. The proposal should be formatted as for grant application (e.g., NIH grant proposal) and include the following (or equivalent) elements:

  • Specific aims: Describe the main research questions, the major hypotheses and outline the experiments to test them.
  • Background and significance: Include a focused literature review on the topics and rationale for the importance of the research.
  • Preliminary studies or progress report: Describe the relevant preparation or research that has been done by the student toward completing his/her dissertation.
  • Research design or Methods: Describe the planned research.

PhD Candidacy

Once the Preliminary Examination has been passed, the student is advanced to PhD Candidacy and may begin his/her doctoral dissertation research as approved by the dissertation committee.

Written and Oral Defense of a PhD Dissertation and Dissertation Submission

The final examination for the degree is a defense of the research and its write-up in front of the dissertation committee, invited guests, and the public. The PhD candidate must present the results of original research and give evidence of excellent scholarship and proficiency in critically relevant research techniques.

At the time of applying for dissertation defense, a PhD candidate must indicate how the research proficiency pertaining to his/her research topics has been fulfilled. This can be shown as completion of VSC 862 - Laboratory Study  with a satisfactory grade and, when applicable, mastery of other relevant research skills (e.g., computer programming skills, advanced statistical methods, neuroimaging techniques, etc.). The candidate’s dissertation committee will evaluate the candidate’s research proficiency as part of the dissertation defense.

To successfully pass the dissertation defense, the student must deliver to the director of the graduate program and the university library an electronic file of the dissertation approved by each of the student’s Dissertation Committee members along with a scanned signature page signed by the Committee before the degree will be conferred.

Tuition and Fees

Per semester (9-12 credits):  $9,225

Per credit:  $1,025

Remediation, per course: $250

Audit, per credit hour:  $450

ExamSoft Fee:  $55

Supervision of immunization:  $20

Calendar: College of Optometry